3.1      System & Application Field (in brief)

The breath test and gas sample analyser (former ID DA8124) is a well-known NDIR non-dispersive infrared spectrometer. 

NDIR (non dispersive infrared based opto (or photakkustic  spectroscopy). It can be used for excample to determine the ratio of the natural isotopes 13C carbon  and 12C carbon in gases containing carbondioxid (CO2). The classic functional and durable design has not changed for 15 years. We have experienced that the laboratory systems ("grey cubes") with this efficient design, which were introduced in 2010, still function perfectly even under very harsh conditions all over the world.
We have not changed the basic design, which is based on the indisputable physical requirements for the highest possible physical stability.

The analysers are easy to operate and maintain by anyone after a short training period. Of course, the "inner values", e.g. electronic control units and the software (actual software based on Java) as well as the operating system and the valves and pumps used have been adapted to the state of the art. Thus, measured values are stored today with an open source H2-database that can still be used in 10 years' time, and the electronic modules used will also be available for years to come.

3.1.1     Application /Examples

12C/13C Isotope ratio analytics is used in wide spreaded field of analytical diagnostic with traces of 13C enriched compound. We call it "indicator" or "substrate".

Please check the publicly available references for analytical purposes. Unfortunately, we do not have the resources to present an adequate and scientifically verified picture. The references cited below are mostly based on personal contacts, involvement and / or recommendations of the responsible author of this page.  13C-Urea as a trace indicator 

Helicobacter pylori - Wikipedia

  • Non-invasive diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection (Review); Best LMJ, Takwoingi Y, Siddique S, Selladurai A, Gandhi A, Low B, Yaghoobi M, Gurusamy KS. Non-invasive diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD012080. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012080.pub2. 
  • Keller J et al. Klinisch relevante Atemtests … Z Gastroenterol 2005; 43: 1071 – 1090
  • Braden, BarbaraLembcke, Bernhard; Caspary, Wolfgang F. Nichtinvasive Funktionsdiagnostik aus der Atemluft mit 13C-Atemtests, Dtsch Arztebl 2003; 100(51-52): A-3376 / B-2813 / C-2631
  • S Koletzko 1, M Haisch, I Seeboth, B Braden, K Hengels, B Koletzko, P Hering; Isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection with 13C-urea breath test;  PMID: 7715299; DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90704-1 13C-Methacetin as a trace indicator  

  • Bodenstein-Schlicht, Lucia; Der 13C-Methacetin-Atemtest zur Diagnostik verschiedener Leberfunktionsstörungen: Nachweis einer eingeschränkten Metabolisierungsfähigkeit in Abhängigkeit vom Zeitpunkt der Messung; urn:nbn:de:bvb:355-epub-173146; 10.5283/epub.17314 13C-Carbondioxide as a "natural" tracer indicator 

Environmental research of clima change. Theory: The 13CO2 concentration can only increase steadily due to the fossil fuels  used by humans, as only these carry an increased 13C content. This is relatively "easy" to measure and validate as an "incorruptible" measurement of the change in the climate gas by means of 12CO2/13CO2 ration analysis of the atmosphere with suitable measuring equipment.

Reason: Fossil fuels formed in the Carboniferous are based on plants with a C4 carbon cycle that favours an accumulation of 13C carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon compounds.

3.1.2     Technical/scientific basis of the NDIR measurement method (an extrem  small and incomplete list from aprox. 1.000 publications, we kindly ask for excuse due to limited rescources to present more)


  • Christoph Berger TUM, Dissertation 2017, Photoakustische Spektroskopie zur Emissionsüberwachung (tum.de);
  • Haisch, C., P. Menzenbach, H. Bladt, and R. Niessner, A Wide Spectral Range Photoacoustic Aerosol Absorption Spectrometer. Analytical Chemistry, 2012. 84(21): p. 8941-8945.
  • Beck, H.A., R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, Development and Characterization of a Mobile Photoacoustic Sensor for On-line Soot Emission Monitoring in Diesel Exhaust Gas. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2003. 375(8): p. 1136- 1143.
  • Lancet, 1995 Apr 15;345(8955):961-2. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90704-1
  • S Koletzko 1, M Haisch, I Seeboth, B Braden, K Hengels, B Koletzko, P Hering; Isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection with 13C-urea breath test;  PMID: 7715299; DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90704-1


  • ref.  Stephan Schmidt               2003 
  • ref.  Lehrer und Luft               1938